Avoid Training Burnout

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Ask Julie Goodnight

Question:
I really enjoy your lectures you are so much easier to listen to than many of the other presenters! I was wondering about the appropriate length of time that a training session with your horse should last. I realize that a lot of that depends on the difficulty of what you are teaching your horse and where your horse is in his learning life. I want my horses to enjoy our sessions together so I don’t want to burn them out or not have them challenging enough. My last question has to do with seat position in the saddle. When we talk about opening our pelvis, I cannot do that without tightening my glutes. Is there a way to open your pelvis without tightening up? Are there visualization techniques to open your pelvis but not tighten up or am I simply doing it wrong, which would not be out of the realm of possibility! Thanks for your help!
Heidi in Topeka, KS

Answer: Heidi,
Glad to hear you enjoyed the presentations. As for your horse question, a mature trained horse should certainly stick with you for an hour or more, depending on how demanding your training session is. The younger the horse, the shorter his attention span. If you give your horse mental breaks throughout your session for a few moments here and there, he will not get too burned out. There is nothing more powerful than quitting on a horse when he has really tried hard so that he comes back the next day with that same attitude. Finished show horses at the peak of their training will generally not have much training at all between shows, but just get light exercise on a longe line or something to stay in shape. That’s how they are kept from burnout.

Pay attention to your own horse’s attitude and watch for early warning signs and know that you may need to vary his work or lighten his workload if his attitude suffers. The best thing is to give frequent breaks during your session. The biggest problem I see with people that leads to burnout in their horses, is that we get too greedy and as soon as our horse gives a good response, we ask again and again and again, which leads the horse to resent you. When you get the response you want, reward the horse with a pet and a break and move onto something else.

The answer to your opening the pelvis question is an easy one! You do NOT use your buttocks muscles to do this. Instead, you use your upper abdominal muscles. Sitting in your chair right now, cough or clear your throat strongly. You will feel your pelvis open when you use these muscles. Those are the muscles you use for pelvis control while you are riding, not your buttocks muscles. There is a set of muscles deep within your abdomen called the psoas muscles and these are the ones you use for opening your pelvis. I also demonstrate this technique in my first two Goodnight’s Principles of Riding DVDs available at www.JulieGoodnight.com.

You are correct that you should never clench your buttocks, not only is this destructive to your riding, but it sends a message of alarm to your horse and pretty soon, you are both clenching your butts! Practice opening your pelvis with your abdominal muscles; using the cough or throat clear will help you get this feel. Check out, Zen and the Horse, Applying the Principles of Meditation to Riding, by Tom Nagel. This book is a quick read and has many great exercises that teach you to isolate the psoas muscles. It is available through www.zenandthehorse.com. Good luck!

Julie Goodnight Trainer and Clinician

Burned Out

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This Issue: Burned Out

Recently I was a speaker at the PATH International therapeutic riding conference—the annual convention. The crowd was full of hundreds of physical therapists, mental health specialists, therapeutic instructors, horse handlers, side walkers and barn managers that work for therapeutic riding programs. My presentation was on avoiding and resolving burnout in therapy horses.

Now, this is a very popular subject because every therapeutic riding program out there shares this problem. While only the best-tempered and most qualified horses are used in such a program, their job is stressful (both physically and mentally), tiring, boring, repetitive and sometimes downright obnoxious. Sometimes as many as five adults are hovering over the client and micromanaging the horse’s every step. With a high dependency on volunteerism in TRPs, the horse has to get used to a revolving door of handlers. Sometimes the client is off balance, moving spasmodically or unpredictably, laughing or screaming loudly. Most therapy horses work hard for a living and many of them also have to make ends meet by working extra hours packing around able-bodied riders in lessons—a novice rider that thinks she knows what she is doing is often harder on the horse than a therapeutic client. As you can imagine, burnout is an occupational hazard in these horses.

Every therapeutic riding program I’ve worked with has problems with horses biting, horses that learn bad habits or avoidance techniques (particularly around the mounting block), horses that develop bad manners, and worst of all, the horses that learn that they can get away with stuff like biting the handler when there is a client on its back because they know the handler won’t take the risk of disciplining the horse with the client on its back. Maybe you’ve had some personal experience with this, if not in a therapy horse how about in a show horse? I consulted with Disney World a few years ago and they had this problem with some of Cinderella’s ponies (you know, the little white ponies that pull the pumpkin carriage). Disney horse handlers are strictly forbidden from taking any disciplinary action at all when the horses are in the park in front of guests and unfortunately sometimes clever little devil ponies learn they can get away with stuff like biting the handler in the park, but they never do it outside where the handler could take disciplinary action. This is a very bad deal because once they learn that there is a certain place that they can get away with stuff, you cannot unlearn it. So we must do our best to prevent the horse from learning this to begin with by being diligent to the horse’s behavior and obedience and taking corrective action before the horse figures it out. Fortunately, most horses are not that smart.

Have you ever had a horse that learned he can get away with things in certain settings? It reminds me of when my sisters and I were little and my parents dressed us up and took us to a very fancy restaurant where we promptly staged a revolt and crawled under the white-linen table and refused to come out (it was my sister’s idea; I was just a pawn in her scheme). We just knew they wouldn’t do anything to us there and that there would be no spanking in the fancy restaurant. Little did we know that later, at home, we would come to regret our actions. Unfortunately, with horses, punishing them after-the fact will serve no purpose other than to confuse the horse and teach him not to trust you. Regret is not a train of thought your horse will follow. As I am fond of saying—once three seconds goes by, it’s a whole ‘nother day to the horse and there is no connection whatsoever.

Although a lot of these behavior problems in therapy horses have to do with the difficult and stressful job they do, much of this it has to do with poor handling and the ever-revolving door of handlers with varying degrees of competence. Many larger and well-funded programs employ a full-time trainer whose job it is to maintain the therapy horse’s training, avoid bad habits and take care of the horse’s mental and physical needs. But the smaller programs are scrapping for every labor dollar they have and usually can’t afford this luxury, so they have to do the best they can, with the people they have.

I wish I had had more time for the presentation because we had about 8-10 therapy horses from several different programs here in Colorado, with a variety of interesting issues. It was way too many horses to work with in the 90 minutes allotted to me. There were a many points that I wanted to stress in training the volunteers and in the day-to-day handling of the horses, but I found myself focusing again and again on a few key points: don’t micro-manage the horse, don’t crowd and grab the horse and be sure to maintain a level of authority with the horse.

Biting horses is probably the most common problem TRPs deal with, a problem that many horse people encounter, but the therapy horses are way more prone to it than any other population I know of. I’ve spent some time pondering this problem and have observed many different operations and to me, the cause is quite clear—the horses are sick and tired of everyone being in their space! These horses get so over-handled with so many well-intentioned people that don’t always do the right thing. The horse handler crowds the horse’s face, often choked up on the lead rope and micro-managing every movement the horse makes (if he’s being used in a TRP, he knows what he is doing; he does it every day and usually knows it better than the handler). Worse, the handler sometimes leads with the reins or clamps down on the reins just behind the bit; both of these actions are VERY hard on a horse’s mouth. Is it any surprise so many therapy horses bite?

It’s just like with riding a horse—at some point you need to quit micro-managing him and just trust the horse to do his job, especially when it is something he knows how to do. Step back, put some slack in the lead (or reins) and let him do his job. You cannot prevent a horse from moving by holding him still (who are you kidding if you think you can hold a 1000 pound horse still?) but you can train him that it is an expectations of yours that he not move his feet without a cue, then step back, loosen the lead and expect him to stand; correct him if he doesn’t. Don’t try to prevent him from making a mistake, just correct him when he does.

This will only work if you have authority over your horse and he respects your leadership; otherwise, when you step back or loosen up, he just does whatever he wants. I have written a lot about this subject—it’s all over my Training Library—and I spent a lot of time in my NARHA presentation just teaching simple ground manners to the horses (and teaching the handlers what to do and what not to do). A horse doesn’t automatically respect you, trust you or accept your authority over all things unless you earn it. And if everyone knew how to do that, I’d be out of a job!

It was a great workshop and I really enjoyed it. The session ended too soon and as usual, I could think of about a thousand things I wish I had time to cover. If you were there, let me know what you enjoyed the most and what you wished we could’ve covered. If you’re involved in a TRP—good for you! It is a valuable and satisfying field and TRPs are always in need of more volunteers, so check it out. If you cannot afford the time, maybe you can make a donation to your local therapeutic riding program(cash is king for these low-budget non-profits). If you are not involved in a TRP, perhaps you can still find some useful information here to help you avoid problems with your horse.
Enjoy the ride!
Julie

–Julie Goodnight

Issues From The Saddle: When To Start A Colt Under Saddle

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Question Category: Issues from the Saddle

Question: My granddaughter and I started our yearling colt this year. He was schooled in halter. We’ve had a saddle pad and surcingle on him. He is used to the English saddle and carries a sweet iron bit beautifully. We can turn him with the bit from the ground as well as back him up. I want to start ground driving him soon. He seems to enjoy all this including a trail course we set up for him. He took reserve in yearling halter and reserve in trail in hand. We have lunged him, trailered him, clipped him (needs work on this). I guess I just want to know if we’re pushing him too much. We are not going to actually ride him until late next year (lightly) then send him to WP trainer as a 3 year old. I would appreciate any input you can give me.

Thanks in advance. Barb

Answer: Barb,

I am assuming that your yearling is now in his 2 y/o year. It is good that you are concerned about pushing him too much and as long as you have that concern, it probably will not happen.

The problem with starting horses too young is two fold. First, there is physical immaturity and methods such as round penning and longeing are way too physically stressful for his immature muscular-skeletal system. The second problem is mental immaturity (short attention span) and the risk of putting too much mental pressure on him and causing resentment to working.

As for the physical problem, as long as you do not round-pen or longe the colt much or ask him to pack around heavy weight, you can avoid this problem. Working at the trot and especially canter on a small circle at too young an age can cause permanent damage to his physical soundness. So you should definitely avoid this type of work. The mental maturity is much more difficult to avoid. Generally, by the time you realize that you have pushed the colt too much, it is too late and he is already sour.

To avoid mentally stressing the colt, make sure your sessions are very short, 10-15 minutes, and very fun for him with lots of variety. Remember, colts of this age are supposed to be playing with the herd out in the field and learning the socially accepted rules of the herd. So make sure he gets plenty of time to play in the herd and that his work is more playful with lots of rewards. If he is kept confined in a stall, the chances of burnout greatly increase.

Starting to ride him as a ‘long’ two-year old is a great idea. As long as you don’t overwork him in the meantime, I think you will be fine. My specialty as a trainer is starting colts and through the years, I have learned that there is a huge difference between a 2 y/o and a 3 y/o, not only physically, but especially in the mind. I prefer to start horses as a 3 y/o, unless there is a compelling reason to do otherwise, such as sales or competition.

As long as your colt is bright eyed and happy to see you, keep doing what you are doing. Keep a close eye for him beginning to resist or dread his work sessions and know that is an early warning sign to back off. Don’t expect too much from him, especially when it comes to his attention span and give him lots of mental breaks in your work session. Good luck!

Julie Goodnight

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