Jealous Colt

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Hi Julie!
My colt is now 11 hands and 275# and he’ll be 5 weeks old on Monday. He’s learning what ‘no’ means and understands he’s not supposed to bite, but he still is invading my space. When he comes too close, I bump into him with my whole body until he moves back. He does move back, but then starts all over again. The mouth thing is better as far as putting it on me, although he tries every second to get his mouth on me, when he’s not doing that, he’s got the shank of the lead or the lead rope itself in his mouth. That pacifies him but I can’t let him do it forever.

So, any suggestions? I use my elbow, the stick, and have always pinched him when he disobeys, but what of this mouth/biting/putting stuff in it? Unfortunately his mother does not discipline him and neither does his grandmother, my mare’s dam. It seems like I’m always correcting him and I feel he’s going to resent me. But, he cannot be allowed to bite or always have his mouth on something.

Lee Ann Hull
SierraRose Farms
DeWitt, Michigan

Hi Lee Ann,
Well, the good news is that at some point, your horse will grow up and these juvenile behaviors will diminish. Young horses (like young humans) are very mouthy and will push their boundaries until they find the limit.

You must persist in corrections and moving him out of your space. If you seem to not be making progress at all, it probably means you are not using enough pressure; that your corrections are not harsh enough to motivate the horse to change. Horses love to play games, especially the younger ones, so be careful that he doesn’t think you are just playing a game with him. Remember, when male horses play, it is called sparring. They play fight, practicing important skills they will need later on in life (in the wild). Your colt could easily think your corrections are just play and that may be why he persists. If this is the case, you need to make it clear to him that you are not playing and be careful not to let him engage you or start a game.

There is a concept in training that says that however a horse is behaving at the moment, is the way he is most motivated to act. In order to change his behavior, you must apply enough pressure to motivate him to change. Depending upon how motivated he is to act that way to begin with, that will dictate how much pressure is required to motivate him to change. With feisty colts, that is sometimes a considerable amount of pressure.

As for mouthing the lead, nothing works better than the old cayenne pepper trick. Sacrifice a lead or two and coat it with cayenne pepper mixed with Vaseline. This will break him of the habit (this will also break the habit of chewing on the mare’s tail, if you coat it with cayenne). Also, make sure he has plenty of ways to use his mouth effectively by munching on all the grass hay he wants, letting him play with other colts and/or giving him stall toys to play with.

Raising horses is a lot like raising kids. They both do better with rules to obey, lots of structure and consistent discipline. My DVD called Lead Line Leadership will show you how to take a horse, young or old, through a systematic process that teaches him good ground manners and to respect your space and authority. Good luck with your colt!
JG

Until next time,

Julie Goodnight
www.juliegoodnight.com

Raising A Breeding Stallion

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Question: I am buying a 3 month old colt that I would like to remain/turn into a stallion. I would like to teach him to be well mannered and to give specific commands for breeding, so he does not associate breeding with every mare he comes into contact with. He may anyway, but if there is a way or a system that you know of, please let me know. I know of a couple stallions that are crazy and I don’t want to regret leaving him au natural! I also want a recommendation on whether to keep him totally separate from all horses, or if being around his own little herd will help.

Answer: There are several things you can do with your colt to make sure he remains a well-mannered stallion. First of all, let me say that in my opinion, there is no excuse for a poorly behaved stallion, other than poor training and handling. There are many breeding stallions that are just as well behaved, if not better, than the average gelding. It is simple a matter of training and discipline. Socializing a young colt with other horses is VERY important. He should be turned out or housed with other geldings as much as possible. You cannot allow him to hang out with fillies or mares, from the time he is a yearling on, because he can and will breed mares. But if he is stabled with other geldings from the time he is a yearling on, he will be much happier and better socialized to herd behavior. I would highly recommend this plan if it is an option.

Some older breeding stallions may not tolerate geldings well, but many will remain “gelding friendly” throughout their lives. As for breeding, first off, I would recommend NOT breeding him until he is 3 or 4. Sometimes breeders will do “test” breedings of a young stallion as a 2 or 3 year old and breed to one or two mares. Just remember that he is still a youngster and needs to focus on his performance training during this time. Once he goes to the breeding barn, his priorities will change. Breeding takes a lot out of a horse physically and it will be tough to focus on his training. It has also been researched and proven that the foals produced from very young or very old stallions (and mares) are not their best get.
When you do start breeding him, it is critical that everything associated with breeding is completely different and separate from the other parts of his life. For example, you use a totally different halter, have a separate area for breeding and teasing and have a different set of rules for handling him when he is breeding (behaviors that you would otherwise disallow, like hollering and squealing, nipping and strutting, sniffing and fondling mares are acceptable when courting a mare). When he is going out of his pen for training purposes, he should not even be allowed to turn his head to look in the direction of a mare without receiving a correction from you. Breeding stallions learn very quickly that putting on the one halter means we are going to work at the training barn now, while the other halter means, yee-haw! We’re headed for the breeding shed! Many breeders use a halter bit in their breeding halter, which not only gives you a better handle on the horse, but makes it even more clear to the horse that this is the breeding halter, not the training one. As your colt matures into a stallion, he will naturally become more dominant and possibly aggressive (if this is tolerated).

It is important to maintain strict discipline and make sure that the person handling him is dominant. Behaviors such as biting are very common in breeding stallions, but this vice will only develop if his handler tolerates it. It is best to “nip in the bud” any such behaviors as a youngster. Be very firm and very disciplined with him and give him lots of training early on, so that you can fall back on this training as he matures into a stud-muffin. Lots of round-pen work and lead-line work will be beneficial in developing a relationship with your colt in which you are clearly the dominant one. Be very consistent in enforcing your behavioral rules for the colt and he will learn from an early age to follow the rules. I can tell already that your colt will turn into a very nice and well-behaved stallion. By addressing these concerns early in his life, you will give him a great start and he will turn out to be the charming young horse you want him to be. Good luck and I hope these answers have helped.

Julie Goodnight, Clinician and Trainer, Horse Master with Julie Goodnight TV Host
http://www.juliegoodnight.com

When To Geld Colt

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Ask Julie Goodnight:
When Should You Geld a Colt?

Hi Julie,
I am planning on buying a yearling stallion. I do want to geld him, but I’m not sure at what age is it ok to geld. Also, is it ok to put a yearling stallion in a field with older horses? Is it true the longer you wait to geld the “prettier” he’ll be (a longer mane, more muscular)? What’s the best practice to help him on his way to being the best horse? Thank you for your time,
Karli

Answer: Karli,
Great questions! And one of the few topics I haven’t already written about in my Training Library. This is a good time to talk about gelding colts since many people are dealing with youngsters this time of year.
First, it is important to recognize that almost all colts should be gelded. Few horses have the breeding, temperament and conformation to warrant becoming a breeding stallion, especially in these days of growing numbers of unwanted horses, a glut of horses on the market and the lack of owners interested in breeding. And since it is rarely if ever feasible to have a stallion, it is wise to geld your colt.

I have worked many years throughout my career on breeding farms and raised quite a few colts myself. Many breeders will geld at a young age, as soon as the testicles descend or around the six month mark. It is my personal preference to geld as a yearling, after weaning and after his first year of growth, which is the year he grows the most. This will generally be before the fly season, thus reducing the chance for infection. At the same time, we will remove his wolf teeth if he has them and we’ll generally follow-up the surgery with lots of groundwork and exercise to help in the healing and begin his training for ground manners.

No matter when I gelded him, I would want my young colt to be out with other horses for the socialization that will take place—there is an article in my Training Library about this, http://juliegoodnight.com/questionsNew.php?id=37. Even if you left him a stallion, you’d want him to stay with other geldings and learn how to get along. Preferably with a more dominant, older “uncle” gelding who will keep him in his place. When I geld the colt, I will keep him by himself for a week or so until he is healed from the surgery—too much frolicking and sparring could be dangerous for him right after the surgery.

Research does not indicate that a colt will grow bigger, stronger or prettier if he is left in-tact. However, it is true that a stallion will have certain “stallion characteristics” that are a result of more hormones floating around his system if he is left in-tact. These characteristics are more obvious in a mature horse and include bulging muscles around the jowl, over the eyes and in the neck and body. A mature stallion will have a certain presence that geldings rarely have. But these characteristics do not appear until the colt is a few years old; it is not worth the extra headaches of having a young stallion and they will disappear as soon as he is gelded. I have not noticed that the mane or tail will grow longer in a stallion.

My husband’s horse was a mature breeding stallion when we bought him. He does have an exceptionally thick mane and tail and the stallion characteristics were very prevalent. The day after we gelded him I could see the bulging jowl and eyebrow muscles deflating but his mane and tail have remained fuller than ever. He is still a gorgeous well-muscled horse, just not as extremely muscled as before we gelded him.

And he is much happier to be living with other geldings without a big fight. There’s no real benefit to keeping a colt in-tact when you know you are going to geld him eventually and I would suggest between 6 months and a year is a good time, depending on your weaning schedule and the seasons. Like dogs and cats, once a horse develops breeding behaviors (like teasing and mounting mares) he doesn’t forget them just because he is gelded. That’s why we have lots of “randy” geldings that will act like stallions when mares come into heat. I have written about this subject too- http://juliegoodnight.com/questionsNew.php?id=148.

Good luck with your colt and thanks for asking these important questions!
Julie

Teaching Young Horse Collection

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Ask Julie Goodnight: How do I teach my young horse to collect?

Dear Julie,
Firstly, let me tell you that I appreciate very much your website and information! Thank you!
My question is: I have a 3 yr old gelding Welsh Cob, just under saddle and I am trying to find the way how to ask him to loosen in the movement. It is ok for him to loose when we are standing (asking to turn the head to me and then he puts it down) but I have no clue how to proceed in movement. I either can’t keep him moving or he keeps moving but I can’t find any reaction for the head to go down. Do you have any suggestion for us?
Best regards from the heart of Europe,
Karola (in Prague)

Answer: Karola,
Thanks for visiting my website and it is good to know I have followers from so far away! You’ll be happy to know that my TV show, Horse Master, is playing in a few countries in Europe now through RuralTV, so maybe it will be available in Prague soon!

I am assuming that what you mean by getting your horse loose, is to have him break at the poll and round his neck and back, while staying soft and relaxed throughout his body, so that his movement is rhythmic and fluid; with a rounded frame, rather than arched and stiff through the top-line. It sounds like you are able to ask your horse to flex laterally (side to side) and vertically (drop his head down as chin comes in and face comes to vertical) when you are standing still, but not while moving.

First, it is important to understand that for young horses that do not have much training, forward movement is the most critical thing to focus on. Breaking at the poll and rounding through the body (collection) come later as the horse develops physically and mentally. The horse’s conformation and natural carriage also play a big role in how easy it is to round his frame and carry himself and the rider this way. Usually Welsh cobs are built well enough in the front end for collection, with a rounded neck and an upright head carriage.

Focus first on just getting good forward, fluid movement from your horse without asking him to give to bit pressure and flex vertically. Then you can start asking him to gradually round his frame just a little at a time. Continue to work on lateral and vertical flexion standing still, then at the walk, then at the trot. If your horse is having trouble keeping his forward impulsion when you are asking him to round, you may be asking for too much too fast and may need to go back to basic training with a focus on forward movement. Make sure he learns to carry himself in the rounded frame and does not become reliant on you holding him up with the reins.

There are several articles in my training library that can help you with your youngster and I have two videos that could help. One is volume 5 in my riding series called “Collection and Refinement.” It elaborates on the mechanics of collection and how to use your aids to ask for it (as well as for lateral movements like leg yield and side pass). Also, my video called “Bit Basics” explains the process of teaching a horse to relax, drop his head and round his frame in response to bit pressure.

I hope this helps! Good luck with your gelding.

–Julie Goodnight Trainer and Clinician

Teaching Babies Not To Bite

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Babies, Don’t Bite!
Babies like to have their mouths on everything. But the behavior that helps them learn to nurse and get nourishment can become annoying and even dangerous if allowed to continue past the first months of life. Lipping behavior (when the horse puts his lips on you and nuzzles) leads to nipping (a small quick pinch with the teeth) and eventually leads to biting. These are all progressive signs of dominance leading to aggression. If the lipping behavior goes unchecked, the young horse begins to nip and if the nipping goes unchecked, he begins to bite. As the horse goes through this progressive behavior, he is simply testing his boundaries to see if he can gain dominance over you.
It has been my experience that horse owners escalate the behaviors by allowing their horses to enter their personal space. By nuzzling, smooching and playing with the horse’s muzzle all the time, the horse begins to think that the lipping behavior is acceptable and continues. Another common action that leads to nipping/biting is when you hand feed treats to horses. In the herd setting, there is a “linear hierarchy” which means that each and every individual of the herd is either dominant over or subordinate to each and every other individual. This means that between you and your horse, one of you will be the dominant leader and one of you will be the subordinate follower. If you were dominant in his mind, he would not dare move into your space or put his lips or teeth on you.

Horses establish dominance in the herd by controlling the resources of the herd (food and water) and by controlling the space of the subordinate members (running them off, pushing them around). If you allow your horse to move into your space at all, it confuses the dominant-subordinate relationship. Horses are much more aware of spatial issues than humans are. When we get horses in training here at my barn, whether youngsters or older horses, one of the first rules of behavior they will learn is to never move into our space with any part of their body, including the nose. Most people constantly allow their horses to move into their space especially with its nose. In fact, it is often encouraged by feeding treats or by playing with the horse’s nose. All of these actions confuse the horse and make him think he is dominant.

With youngsters, it’s important for you as the handler to establish what distance is allowed and what’s too close. Do not stand close to your horse’s face or pet him on the face and do not allow him to move his nose toward you at all while you are working around him. Every time he moves his nose toward you, correct him by poking a finger in his cheek or just pointing at his nose until he puts it back to its proper place, in front of his chest. I’m not advocating pain at all, but a correction similar to what another horse would do to say he wasn’t pleased with the behavior. If you establish this basic rule (your nose must stay in front of your chest at all times that I am working around you) and you correct him 100% of the time he makes an infraction, he will learn this important ground manner quickly. Also, any time any other part of his body moves toward you, back him out of your space. This will help him to learn a respectful distance and to be respectful of your space as the dominant herd member.

When the colt reaches out to nip or bite, you should instantly correct him. This correction must come instantly without any pause at all on your part. The optimal time for a correction is one-half second after the behavior, in order for a strong association between the behavior and the correction to be made by the horse. There is a 3 second window of opportunity within which to reward or correct a horse, but the sooner in that 3 seconds the correction or reward occurs, the more meaningful it is to the horse, and the optimal time is one half second.
If you are leery of poking the horse in the cheek, then you can give him a pinch on his neck, to simulate the alpha horse biting him. Take your thumb and index finger and give him a hard squeeze at the base of his neck muscle. Wrap your fingers around several inches of the big strapping muscle that defines the bottom line of his neck and then give a quick sharp squeeze. This will give him quite a shock and simulates biting. It gives him a taste of his own medicine, so to speak. Your timely and appropriate response will teach him manners instead of allowing the behavior to escalate and possibly become dangerous. A horse that bites is dangerous and you don’t want the baby you love to be exiled or kept away from horses and humans in the future.
I want to reinforce the fact that as likely as not, the human is the one that has made the horse nippy by crowding his space, playing with his mouth, feeding treats and allowing the horse to push him around. So make sure that you correct your behavior too, if necessary, so as not to encourage the horse to be disrespectful.
–Julie Goodnight

When To Geld My Colt

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Question: Hi Julie,

I am planning on buying a yearling stallion. I do want to geld him at what age is it ok to geld, also is it ok to put a yearling stallion in a field with older horses? Is it true the longer you wait to geld the “prettier” he’ll be ( a longer mane, more muscular)?

Thank you for your time,
Karli

Answer: Karli,

Great questions! And one of the few topics I haven’t already written about in my Training Library. This is a good time to talk about gelding colts since many people are dealing with youngsters this time of year.

First, it is important to recognize that almost all colts should be gelded. Few horses have the breeding, temperament and conformation to warrant becoming a breeding stallion, especially in these days of growing numbers of unwanted horses, a glut of horses on the market and the lack of owners interested in breeding. And since it is rarely if ever feasible to have a stallion, it is wise to geld your colt.

I have worked many years throughout my career on breeding farms and raised quite a few colts myself. Many breeders will geld at a young age, as soon as the testicles descend or around the six month mark. It is my personal preference to geld as a yearling, after weaning and after his first year of growth, which is the year he grows the most. This will generally be before the fly season, thus reducing the chance for infection. At the same time, we will remove his wolf teeth if he has them and we’ll generally follow-up the surgery with lots of groundwork and exercise to help in the healing and begin his training for ground manners.

No matter when I gelded him, I would want my young colt to be out with other horses for the socialization that will take place—there is an article in my Training Library about this, http://juliegoodnight.com/questionsNew.php?id=37. Even if you left him a stallion, you’d want him to stay with other geldings and learn how to get along. Preferably with a more dominant, older “uncle” gelding who will keep him in his place. When I geld the colt, I will keep him by himself for a week or so until he is healed from the surgery—too much frolicking and sparring could be dangerous for him right after the surgery.

Research does not indicate that a colt will grow bigger, stronger or prettier if he is left in-tact. However, it is true that a stallion will have certain “stallion characteristics” that are a result of more hormones floating around his system if he is left in-tact. These characteristics are more obvious in a mature horse and include bulging muscles around the jowl, over the eyes and in the neck and body. A mature stallion will have a certain presence that geldings rarely have. But these characteristics do not appear until the colt is a few years old; it is not worth the extra headaches of having a young stallion and they will disappear as soon as he is gelded. I have not noticed that the mane or tail will grow longer in a stallion.

My husband’s horse was a mature breeding stallion when we bought him. He does have an exceptionally thick mane and tail and the stallion characteristics were very prevalent. The day after we gelded him I could see the bulging jowl and eyebrow muscles deflating but his mane and tail have remained fuller than ever. He is still a gorgeous well-muscled horse, just not as extremely muscled as before we gelded him. And he is much happier to be living with other geldings without a big fight. There’s no real benefit to keeping a colt in-tact when you know you are going to geld him eventually and I would suggest between 6 months and a year is a good time, depending on your weaning schedule and the seasons. Like dogs and cats, once a horse develops breeding behaviors (like teasing and mounting mares) he doesn’t forget them just because he is gelded. That’s why we have lots of “randy” geldings that will act like stallions when mares come into heat.

Good luck with your colt and thanks for asking these important questions!
Julie

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