Riding Right With Julie Goodnight – Know Your Rein Aids

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Dear Julie, I’m a bit confused about rein aids—how they differ in English and Western riding. I’ve been hearing terms like direct and direct opposition, indirect and indirect opposition. What do these terms mean and when do you use them while riding? Signed, Reining in the Answers.

Dear Reining in the Answers, Excellent questions—rein cues are seldom fully understood. First of all, there aren’t differences when it comes to English versus Western rein cues. The rein aids work the same and your horse will respond the same way no matter what style of saddle you ride in. Some might argue that the neck rein is strictly Western. However, I like my English horses to know the neck rein, too. It’s imperative for sports like polo (which is considered an English discipline because it’s done in an English saddle) where the competitor can only have one hand on the reins in order to play the game. Neck reining is also helpful when trail riding—if you need to have a hand free to open a gate or move a branch.

Let’s clarify some other rein-aid terms. Neck, direct leading/opening and indirect rein aids are all used when riding English or Western. The term “rein aid” simply refers to how you move your hand and the direction of pull you create on your horse’s mouth (up, back, sideways). The term “rein of opposite on” refers to your horse’s forward motion when you’re pulling back on the rein. You’re pulling in a direction that is opposite to your horse’s forward movement. A “rein of opposition” tends to slow down your horse.

For a direct rein, your hand moves from its neutral position (in front of the pommel, creating a straight line from your elbow to the corner of your horse’s mouth) directly toward your hip. There’s a backward (and slightly upward) pull on the rein and therefore it’s a rein of opposition. An opening rein or leading rein occurs when you move your forearm to the side instead of back toward your hip. There’s no opposition and your aid doesn’t inhibit forward motion. The leading/opening rein is often used as a training rein aid—when you’re first teaching colts to turn, teaching a horse to spin or when asking for lateral movement. It’s a lead in rein when it’s the inside rein (you’re moving the rein on the same side as you want your horse to turn). Use the term “opening rein” when you’re cuing with the outside rein—when your horse is tracking or bending away from the opening rein. You’ll use an opening rein when you want to move your horse’s shoulder or barrel out to make a circle larger.

Tip: The basic neck rein is a gentle touch of the rein against the side of your horse’s neck, well in front of the withers and without opposition. In neck reining, your horse is trained to move away from the touch of the rein on his neck and he moves his nose and neck away from the neck rein. If you pull too hard or cross your hand too far past the middle of your horse’s neck, you’ll in hibit your horse’s movement and he’ll actually turn his head the wrong way. The neck rein is typically used for one-handed riding, but maybe used two-handed in combination with another rein aid. For example, when you’re teaching a young horse to neck rein, you may use the neck rein as the outside rein aid and the leading rein on the inside to help control your horse’s nose. Eventually, your horse associates the neck rein with turning his neck and nose away from the rein and you no longer need the leading rein. The neck rein with opposition (a slight backward pull with the application of the neck rein) is called the “bearing rein” and may be used to turn your horse back on his haunches, such as in a roll back or a pivot on the haunches.

There are two indirect rein aids: the “indirect rein in front of the withers” (not a rein of opposition) and the “indirect rein behind the withers” (a rein of opposition). The indirect rein in front of the withers is a lift up and in on the rein toward your horse’s neck, an upward diagonal pull on the rein; from the normal hand position, just lift your pinkie finger up toward your horse’s withers without pulling back, like you’re turning a key in a door. The indirect rein in front of the withers moves your horse’s shoulder in the opposite direction, while the nose stays bent in the direction of the turn.

The indirect rein behind the withers has some opposition or backward pull, and causes your horse to move his hip away from the rein hand while your horse stays bent toward the rein hand, such as in a turn on the forehand or disengagement of the hindquarters. The direction of pull on the rein is up and back toward the rider’s opposite shoulder, in a motion like crossing your heart (the inside rein comes across your horse’s neck behind the withers). Some important caveats for all rein aids: it’s not the amount of pull or contact that causes a reaction in your horse, but the direction of the pressure on your horse’s mouth and the movement of the rider’s hand (when using the indirect rein aids especially—it’s only effective when there’s little or no pressure on your horse’s mouth). Also, when riding two-handed your hands should never cross your horse’s withers. If they do, the rein aid you’re using is ineffective and may be interfering with your horse’s motion (pulling his nose in the wrong direction). The rein aids are always supported by leg aids—we’ll cover that soon.

This is a lot of information! It takes a lot of time and experience before a rider is able to use the rein aids articulately and effectively. For further information, refer to Volume 5 in my Principles of Riding DVD series, Refinement and Collection. This DVD explains and demonstrates the rein aids in detail. It never ceases to amaze me how responsive a horse can be to the lightest amount of pressure and the slightest movement of your hand. One really Important thing I have learned through the years about rein aids is that the slower you move your hands, the better your horse will respond.

Riding Skills: The Difference In Rein-Aids Between English And Western

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Question Category: Riding Skills

Question: Dear Julie,

Please explain to me the rein aids for English and Western. I would like to know which ones to use for each discipline and what is the difference. For example, direct and direct opposition, indirect and indirect opposition? And how do you use these in riding?

Elizabeth

Answer: Hi Elizabeth,

Thanks for the excellent questions. I find this is an area that is vaguely understood, at best, by the average horse person. First of all, as far as the difference in the rein aids between English and Western, to me there are none. The rein aids work the same and the horse responds the same way no matter what style of saddle you ride in. Some might argue that the neck rein is strictly Western, but I like my English horses to know the neck rein too and it is imperative for sports like polo (which may be considered an English discipline, since it is done in an English saddle but with one hand on the reins). All of the other rein aids, direct, leading/opening and indirect are definitely used both English and Western.

The term “rein aid” refers simply to how the rider moves her hand and the direction of pull on the horse’s mouth (up, back, sideways). The term “rein of opposition” is sort of an old-fashioned term and is most often used with the term “direct rein,” as in “direct rein of opposition.” Opposition refers to the forward motion of the horse and whenever you pull back on a rein, you are pulling in opposition to the horse’s forward movement. Therefore, it tends to slow the horse down.
For the direct rein, the rider’s hand moves from the regular hand position (in front of the pommel, straight line from rider’s elbow to the corrner of the horse’s mouth), directly toward the rider’s hip. There is a backward (and slightly upward) pull on the rein and therefore it is a rein of opposition.

An opening rein or leading rein is when the rider moves her forearm to the side and not back and therefore it does not inhibit forward motion. This rein aid is often used as a training rein aid, such as when you are first teaching colts to turn or when you are teaching a horse to spin or turn on the haunches or do lateral movements. It is a leading rein when it is the inside rein (you are opening the rein on the same side as you want the horse to turn). It is an opening rein when you are using it as the outside rein, when the horse is bending away from the opening rein, but you want to move the horse’s shoulder or barrel out (like opening up a circle or leg yielding/two tracking).

There are two indirect rein aids: the “indirect rein in front of the withers” and the “indirect rein behind the withers.” The latter is a rein of opposition and the former is not. The indirect rein in front of the withers is a lift up and in on the rein toward the horse’s neck (an upward diagonal pull on the rein; from the normal hand position, just turn your pinkie toward the horse’s withers without pulling back; the inside rein comes across the horse’s neck in front of the withers). The indirect rein in front of the withers moves the horse’s shoulder in the opposite direction, while the nose stays bent in the direction of the turn.

The indirect rein behind the withers has some opposition or backward pull, and causes the horse to move his hip away from the rein hand while the horse stays bent toward the rein hand, such as in a turn on the forhand or disengagement of the hindquarters. The direction of pull on the rein is up and back toward the rider’s opposite shoulder, in a motion like crossing your heart (the inside rein comes across the horse’s neck behind the withers).

Some important caveats for all rein aids: it is not the amount of pull or contact that causes a reaction in the horse, but the direction of the pressure on the horse’s mouth or the movement of the rider’s hand (when using the indirect rein aids especially- it is only effective when there is little or no pressure on the horse’s mouth). Also, when riding two-handed (as all of the above rein aids require) your hand should never cross the horse’s withers. If it does, the rein aid you are using is ineffective and may be interfering with the horse’s motion (pulling his nose in the wrong direction). All rein aids are supported by leg aids (but that is a whole other subject).

The neck rein is typically used for one-handed riding, but may be used two-handed in combination with another rein aid. For example, when you are teaching a young horse to neck rein, you may use the neck rein as the outside rein aid and the leading rein on the inside to help control the horse’s nose. Eventually, the horse associates the neck rein with turning his neck and nose away from the rein and you no longer need the leading rein.

Like the indirect rein, the neck rein may be used in opposition or not. The basic neck rein is a gentle touch of the rein against the side of the horse’s neck well in front of the withers and has no opposition. The horse is trained to move away from the touch of the rein on his neck and he moves his nose and neck away from the neck rein. If there is a hard pull or the rider’s hand crosses too far over the midline of the horse’s neck, it will inhibit the horse’s movement and turn his nose the wrong way.

The neck rein with opposition (a slight backward pull with the application of the neck rein) is called the “bearing rein” and may be used to turn the horse back on his haunches, such as in a roll back or a pivot on the haunches.

This is a lot of information about how to use the reins effectively and it takes a lot of time and experience before the rider is able to use the rein aids so explicitly and effectively. And it never ceases to amaze me how responsive a horse can be to the lightest amount of pressure and the slightest movement of your hand. One really important thing I have learned through the years about rein aids is that the slower you move your hands, the better the horse will respond.

Julie Goodnight Trainer and Clinician

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Issues From The Saddle: How Do You Stop A Horse When He’s Running Backwards

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Question Category: Issues from the Saddle

Question: How do you stop a horse when he’s running backwards?

I was trail riding over the weekend, and my horse took a dislike to the horse behind him. I saw the symptoms (making faces) and tried to get his attention on me, but he would have none of it! That awful equine behind him clearly needed to be taught a lesson (he must have been several feet back). So my horse (an appaloosa) RAN backwards!

I wasn’t very effective in stopping him – just tried to kick & push him with my legs into forward, and he finally did stop without a catastrophe. But how could I have handled this? Pulling back – as one instinctively does to stop – is obviously counter-productive. It seems to me that pulling his head around with one rein might cause him to fall. Does clasping the rein tightly at the neck work in this instance?
Thanks! This situation might not arise again, but I like to be prepared.

Janet

Answer: Janet,

You’re right! Pulling back on the reins when your horse is running backwards is not a good idea and will probably make the horse backup faster or rear. While forward motion is what you’d like to ask for, in this instance, because the horse is threatening to kick someone, it is more important to stop the backward movement immediately by disengaging the hindquarters.

There is a lot of information about disengagement and rein aids on my website; it is executed with the indirect rein behind the withers (a rein of opposition), by lifting the rein up and back toward your belly button or opposite shoulder. It will move the hip away from the rein aid and cause the horse to cross his hind legs and stop his impulsion. Although you might not want to use this technique if a horse were running forward and bolting, it is unlikely to make him fall or even stumble while backing.

When a horse is threatening to kick, the best solution is to turn the horse’s head toward the horse he wants to kick. When you turn toward, it makes the horse’s hip move away from whatever he is aiming at. So your solution is to disengage the horse’s hindquarter, in order to stop the horse’s impulsion, while turning the horse toward his intended target. When two horses threaten to go butt to butt, always bring their noses together.

Your horse is extremely disobedient to act that way while being ridden. Horses need to be taught, in no uncertain terms, from day one of their interactions with humans, that when they are in-hand or under-saddle, they are absolutely forbidden from displaying any herd behaviors, especially acts of aggression. Toward this end, horses should never be allowed to fraternize or even move a nose in the direction of another horse when being ridden together. They are perfectly capable of understanding this rule, when it is strictly enforced.

In punishment for such a disobedient act, once I got him under control, I would have immediately taken him away form the group and tried to work the shoes right off his feet (hissing, spitting and growling at him all the while). My goal is for my horse to associate being ostracized from the herd and having to work hard with his aggressive actions. Like all training, timing is critical to get the horse to make the right association.
My guess is that you need to work on your horse’s manners both on the ground and in the saddle. Again, there are scores of articles on my website that will help you with all of these things.

Good luck!
JG

Copyright ©Julie Goodnight 2000. All Rights Reserved. No part of this website may be reproduced without owner’s express consent.