Question Category: Issues from the Saddle
Question: I have been given a 12 year old gelding that I am very much attached to and enjoy riding. The problem is that he has had some past abuse issues and under saddle he is a nervous wreck. On a trail ride, he will mainly jig the whole ride, like he wants to run. However, he is not a ‘hot’ horse by nature. It seems he has been “trained” or it seems more like abused to the point of acting this way. We have come a long way in respects to ground manners (he is now an angel when it comes to handling) and even have some progress under saddle, as he is not bolting anymore.
He is highly sensitive to leg pressure (actually, he is highly sensitive to everything). To the point that I only ride with my weight because leg pressure sends him shooting off into a tizzy. However, when I am on the ground with him and I put pressure on his side with my hands (to ask him to step sideways or move over), I get zero reaction. I would like to teach him to yield to my legs and bend. Eventually going into side passing and pivots. I would also like to teach him to go on the bit rather than behind it. (His old bolting habit was to go behind the bit and run.) So far, asking him with my seat and legs down into the bit has not worked. In fact, this results in a hyper, hopping mess of a nervous horse.
I ride in a loose ring snaffle and I really stay off his mouth when I ride (western horse, light to no contact). He is not very responsive to this bit and responds better to weight in respects to stopping when working in an arena. (He responds to the tiniest half-halt) On trail, I have to haul on him to stop him much of the time. However, he is not very responsive to a tom thumb either. I think a tom thumb is the wrong way to go with this horse anyway as raising his head is not the goal here.
I need suggestions as to what I should do next? I am continually working on relaxation under saddle using half halts. Also, how do I teach a calm down cue under saddle? I’ve got it working great on the ground and the results have been fantastic…I can spray him with the hose; we can walk by tractors, barking dogs and other very scary things. (BTW-the cue I use on the ground is pressure on his poll to put his head down below his withers…this calms him down greatly.) Thanks so much for some advice!
Answer: Wow! There are quite a few questions in your email, but I’ll give it a crack to try and suggest some solutions to your problems.
First, I should say that it sounds like you have made a lot of progress with this horse, so you should feel good about that and continue on whatever path you have been on to this point.
Secondly, let me say that I learned a long time ago that it is very difficult make diagnosis and recommendations on horses when I am not actually seeing the horse’s behavior. I have always found that the rider’s interpretation of what is happening and what he or she is actually doing is not always the same as what I might observe if I were there in person. But what I’ll do is answer your question in terms of what I most commonly see when people are dealing with issues such as you describe.
First, I’ll address the jigging on the trail. I have yet to encounter a horse that was not responsive to correcting this behavior. Most often, when the horse jigs, the rider picks up on the reins to make him stop, but then does not release the reins (or only releases minutely) the instant the horse walks. And/or the rider does not trust the horse to walk and so keeps hold of the reins and pretty soon the horse is jigging BECAUSE he is anxious about his mouth because the rider is holding the reins too tight. Also, in anticipation of the jig, the rider is typically perched forward in a tense position, with her center of gravity in front of the horse and the horse associates this position with trotting.
The solution that I have always had success with is to pick up high on the reins (sitting back on your pockets at the same time) when he breaks into the trot, and the instant the horse walks, drop the reins dramatically to a very loose rein, with your hands actually laying on the horse’s neck so he can feel them. He may only walk a step or two before he trots again, then pick up and release dramatically (the rein drop has to be very dramatic so that the horse notices).
Soon he will associate walking with a totally loose rein and that is what he wants (that is what any horse wants). Also, it really helps to concentrate on the walk rhythm and really sit down on him hard and make sure you are not tensing in your seat in anticipation of the horse breaking into trot. Often in this situation, people tense in their seat thinking that the horse is going to break into trot and pretty soon, the horse thinks he is supposed to be trotting because he feels the rider’s weight shifting forward. So make sure you are sitting well back on your seat bones with loose and relaxed joints.
Trust the horse to walk on a loose rein. If you feel him tense up like he might trot, just sit relaxed. Do not correct him unless he actually breaks into a trot. That way he learns to trust you too and he learns that he is only corrected if he actually trots. Don’t get sucked into the vicious cycle of you pulling all the time and him jigging all the time.
Your horse sounds very sensitive. Another way of describing a “hot blooded” horse is one that is highly sensitive to environmental stimuli. That means ALL stimuli (sight, sounds, smells, touch, weather, movements, etc.). With horses that are sensitive to leg pressure, the temptation is to always brace your leg out away from their sides to keep your leg off them. This is the worst thing that you can do for two reasons. One, when you do use your leg, it feels like a real jolt to him (it requires a big movement of the leg). Secondly, when you brace your leg it causes you to tense and that leads to jerky motions, which will make a sensitive horse reactive to the leg.
Keep your legs relaxed and soft and in close contact to the horse’s sides always. This will not only help desensitize him to leg contact but also remove the shock factor that happens when the leg is held off his sides. Again, also make sure that you are sitting well back on the horse and not perching forward in anticipation of his forward movement. This is very common but the result is that your horse wants to move more forward when your weight is forward, in an effort to get back under your center of gravity. So sit back on your pockets and down on the horse’s back and keep your legs relaxed and close to his sides.
Behind the bit: This is likely related to all the other problems and stems from the horse being pulled on too much. Forward or sensitive horses fall into this trap easily. Because the riders are less than confident on them, they tend to sit tense (forward) and clutch on the reins. Which increases the horse’s anxiety (from the pressure on his mouth) and the tense position makes the horse want to move more forward. Horses are herd animals and as such, when their rider is tense, they will tense. Herd animals are programmed to act like the animals around them. So, before the horse can learn to respond properly to the bit, he needs to learn to trust the rider and work on a loose rein (way loose). I would spend a lot of time with this horse trying to work him on a loose rein with a low and level frame.
Once he works steady and calm in this frame, only then would I ask him to come up onto the bit, with the lightest amount of contact possible. Contact is contact, whether it is one ounce or ten pounds in your hands. A very sensitive horse will likely only tolerate very light contact. I might try riding the horse in a rope halter, a bosal or a side pull at first to get him to relax and accept contact without pressure on his mouth.
When you are ready to ride on contact with a bit, I would try a Myler snaffle or the Myler combination.
For a calm-down cue with hot horses, I like to use two techniques. First teach the horse to lower his head on command both from the ground and mounted. A horse has to relax when his head is down low. There are many techniques for doing this. Light pressure on the poll will teach the horse to drop his head from the ground (be sure to release the pressure at the first hint of a drop). The rope halter is an especially useful tool for teaching a horse to drop his head. The first few inches of head-drop may be tough to get but after that he will take big drops all the way to the ground. Be sure to release the pressure and lavish praise on the horse when he drops so that he becomes addicted to this calm state.
Once the horse learns this from the ground, it is much easier to do it from the saddle. Teach him a rein cue for a head drop. Lift up lightly on one rein (make sure the other rein is totally loose) and wait until the horse drops his head slightly. Be sure to release as he drops so that he does not hit the bit and punish himself for dropping his head. Then go through the same process of release and reward so that he learns to drop it all the way.
The second calm down cue would be the one-rein stop and disengagement of the hindquarters. Disengagement happens when the horse crosses his hind legs and all forward motion ceases. Disengagement takes away the horse’s flight response and therefore puts him in a submissive and calm state of mind (even if only for a moment). To do this, lift up on one rein (it is essential the other rein is loose). Lift the rein up toward your opposite shoulder so that it is an upward, diagonal pull. Pull slowly and softly, this is not intended to be a harsh or quick movement. Hold the rein up until you feel his hindquarters disengage and then drop the rein all the way down to the horse’s neck and he should stop. If not, repeat. So every time the horse gets squirrelly, pick up on one rein until the horse disengages and stops. Soon, the horse will begin to slow and relax when you just begin to lift one rein. The one rein stop is far superior to pulling on both reins, which causes the horse to stiffen his neck and jaw and lean into the pressure.
It is sad but true that many horses that have been trained using brutal and relentless training methods and have terrible emotional baggage when being ridden, even if those techniques are no longer used. Imagine what it is like for a horse to be constantly criticized and tortured with inhumane apparatus, day in and day out. He will learn to do what he needs to do in order to survive this treatment, but he will be emotionally scared, possibly for the rest of his life. Be understanding and patient and try to make his training as drastically different as you can, using as little in the way of artificial aids as possible.
I think I have addressed most of your questions. I hope you find something that helps. Remember, apparently what you are doing is effective since your horse seems to be making progress. Consider some of these ideas and they may help you make even more dramatic progress with your horse. Good luck and let me know how it goes!
Clinician and Trainer
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